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September 21, 2017 Comments Off on Harvard University

The concept of intelligence has been transformed over time. Dr. Ramon Gallegos in his book spiritual intelligence (2007), recognizes three great moments in development:-the first is the uniform vision of intelligence that emerges at beginning of 1900 (20th century) when Alfred Binet developed the intelligence test, to measure the academic performance of children in Paris, also known as IQ (IQ), this concept born under a dominant view in the era, industrial scientific vision. This one-dimensional view valued only some aspects of consciousness, basically instrumental rationality. At this time the human culture was firmly rooted in the development of factories, the industrial and technology by which the concept was compatible with social goals. Smart was called which was effective in the management of machines and technology. This type of intelligence was essentially related to two human capacities: the LOGiCO-Matematico and the verbal, following this were born other investigations as the Piaget which study the development of mathematical logical thought exclusively.

The educational model was standardized centered on the training of memory, a curriculum closed and default, aimed exclusively at technical and academic thinking. -The second moment is that of multiple intelligences that emerged in the last twenty years of the last century as an alternative to uniform vision of intelligence, emerged in 1967, as a result of a group of academics from Harvard University, who initiated the development of a pluralistic vision of intelligence through the zero project. In his book holistic education Dr. Ramon Gallegos () mentions that the representative of this project was Howard Gardner who named it theory of multiple intelligences. With this theory it recognizes different facets of cognition, as potential and cognitive styles in people. Resulting eight types of intelligences, by which this vision is now plural, besides that included for the first time non-cognitive aspects. According to Gardner is has overrated the intelligences linguistic and logical – mathematical since our current educational system focused student success in the classroom, basically in these two intelligences more not success in professional and social life.

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